Comprehensive Bibliography

Primary Sources

 Allen, William, ed. An American Biographical and Historical Dictionary. 2nd ed. Boston: William Hyde & Co., 1832.

 America’s Historical Newspapers, ReadEx database.

Bailey, Rev. Frederick W. “Early Connecticut Marriages: As found on Ancient Church Records Prior to 1800 (Wethersfield, Hartford Co., CT, Marriages 1739-1799).” Vol. 3 (1898).

Connecticut Archives Miscellaneous Papers 1635-1789 Three Volumes and Index, Connecticut State Library, Hartford, CT. Accessed December 22, 2018.

Connecticut Church Records: Hartford First Baptist Church, 1789-1909, Connecticut State Library, Reel 222. Connecticut State Library, Hartford, CT.

Connecticut Church Records: Hartford First Church of Christ, vol. 1, 1684-1910, Connecticut State Library, Reels 500-505, Main Vault, “Records and Papers.” Connecticut State Library, Hartford, CT.

Connecticut Courant, 1764-

Connecticut Probate Packets. Connecticut State Library, Hartford, CT.

Connecticut Probate Records. Connecticut State Library, Hartford, CT.

Connecticut, Wills and Probate Records, 1609-1999. Available through

Dean, John Ward, ed. The New England Historical and Genealogical Register. XXXVII. Boston: Society’s House, 1883.

“The Deane Papers, Vol. 5, 1782-1790.” Collections of the New-York Historical Society for the Year 1890 23 (New York: Printed for the Society, 1891).

First Church of Christ (Hartford, Conn.). Historical Catalogue of the First Church In Hartford. 1633-1885 Hartford: Pub. by the Church, 1885.

“French-Indian War Rolls.” Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society 1 Hartford: CHS, 1903.

“A Fugitive Slave Case in Connecticut.” Hartford Daily Courant (Nov. 9, 1850).

Hale Collection of Cemetery Inscriptions and Newspaper Notices, 1629-1934. Available through

Hartford Courant (Historical), Proquest database.

Hartford Land Records. Vol. 6.

“Hartford Town Votes, 1635-1716, vol, 1.” Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society 6 Hartford: CHS, 1897.

Hinman, Royal Ralph. Catalogue of the First Puritan Setters of the Colony of Connecticut. Hartford: Press of Case, Tiffany and Company 1851.

Hinman, Royal Ralph. A Historical Collection from Official Records, Files, &c. Hartford: E. Gleason, 1842.

Kingsbury Collection: Negro Census (Hartford 1803-1805), Stowe-Day Foundation, Hartford, CT.

Knight, Sarah Kemble and Rev. Thomas Buckingham. The Journals of Madam Knight and Rev. Mr. Buckingham, New York: Wilder and Campbell, 1825.

Ledyard, John. Connecticut Probate Packet. Available through

“New England Marriages before 1700.” Available through

“Order for a Warrant for the Execution of Young Squamp and Waisoiusqua,” Connecticut Court of Assistants, May 15, 1711. Yale Indian Papers Project.

“Original Distribution of the Lands in Hartford Among the Settlers.” Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society (1912).

Parker, Edwin Pond. History of the Second Church of Christ in Hartford. Hartford: Belknap & Warfield, 1892.

Probate Estate Papers, Connecticut State Library, and Connecticut Wills and Probate, also available through

“Records of the Particular Court of Connecticut, 1639-1663” accessed on December 27, 2018.

“Registers of Seamen’s Protection Certificates” housed at the Munson Institute in Mystic, CT.

“Registers of Seamen’s Protection Certificates” issued at the Custom Houses of Fall River, Gloucester, New Haven, New London, Newport, Marblehead, and Salem from 1796-1871.

“A Return of the Number of Inhabitants in the State of Connecticut, February 1, 1782; and Also of the Indians and Negroes.” Trumbull Papers XXIV, document 178, Connecticut State Library.

“Rolls and Lists of Connecticut Men in the Revolution, 1775-1783.” Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society. Hartford: CHS, 1901.

Runaway Connecticut. Wesleyan University in Middletown, CT.

Sewall, Samuel. The Selling of Joseph. Boston: Printed by Bartholomew Green and John Allen, 1700.

“Sexton’s List of Burials Center Church Burying Ground Hartford, Connecticut,” Annotated by Mary K. Talcott (as published in consecutive issues of The Connecticut Magazine, 1898-1899),

Skene, William Forbes, ed. Memorials of the family Skene: From the Family Papers with Other Illustrative Documents. Aberdeen: Printed for the New Spaulding Club, 1887.

Talcott, John Col., “Memorandum Book of Col. John Talcott (-1688),” 1934, Connecticut State Library Archives, Hartford, CT.

Trumbull, J.H. and C.J. Hoadly. The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut. Hartford: Brown and Parsons, 1850. Accessed December 22, 2018.

Ullman, Helen Schavet, transc. Colony of Connecticut Minutes of the Court of  Assistants 1669-1711. Boston: New England Historical and Genealogical Society, 2009.

Ullman, Helen Schavet, transc. Hartford County, Connecticut, County Court Records, vols. 3-4. Boston: New England Historical and Genealogical Society, 2005.

Wadsworth, Daniel. Diary of Rev. Daniel Wadsworth, 1737-1747. Hartford: The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, 1894.

Washburn, Albert L. Historic Spots of Old Hartford [map]. 1st edition. No scale given. Hartford: Polygon Press, 1930.

Washburn, Albert L. Locations of the First Church of Christ, Hartford CT [map]. Copy. No scale given. Hartford: A.L. Washburn, 1896.

Washburn, Albert L. Ye Burying Place [map]. original copy. 1″=10 ft. Hartford: A.L. Washburn, 1899.

Secondary Sources

Adams, Catherine and Elizabeth H. Pleck. Love of Freedom: Black Women in Colonial and Revolutionary New England. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Adams, Herbert Baxter. Labor, Slavery, and Self-Government. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1893.

Adams, Sherman W. and Henry Reed Stiles. The History of Ancient Wethersfield, Connecticut: Comprising the Present Towns of Wethersfield, Rocky Hill, and Newington. New York: Grafton Press, 1904.

Anthony, Billie M. “Monument to the Black Governors.” CT Explored, April 6, 2015. Accessed December 22, 2018.

Ashley, Elihu. Romance, Remedies, and Revolution: The Journal of Dr. Elihu Ashley of Deerfield, Massachusetts. Edited by Amelia F. Miller and A.R. Riggs. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 2007.

Baldwin, Peter. “Antiprostitution Reform and the Use of Public Space in Hartford, Connecticut, 1878-1914.” Journal of Urban History 23, no. 6 (1997).

Barbour, Lucius Barnes. Families of Early Connecticut. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1982.

Barnes, Rhae Lynn. “Sailors and Slaves: Maritime History of the Long Eighteenth Century.” U.S. History Scene. Accessed on Aug. 22, 2018.

Beeching, Barbara J. “African Americans and Native Americans in Hartford 1636-1800: Antecedents of Hartford’s Nineteenth Century Black Community.” Master’s thesis, Trinity College, 1993.

Beeching, Barbara J. Hopes and Expectations: The Origins of the Black Middle Class in Hartford. Albany: SUNY Press, 2016.

Benes, Peter and Jane Benes. Slavery/antislavery in New England. Boston: Boston University, 2005.

Blake, W. O., comp. The History of Slavery and the Slave Trade, Ancient and Modern. Columbus: J & H Miller, 1858.

Block, Sharon. Colonial Complexions: Race and Bodies in Eighteenth-Century America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018.

Bly, Antonio T. Escaping Bondage: A Documentary History of Runaway Slaves in Eighteenth-Century New England, 1700-1789. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2012.

Bollettino, Maria Alessandra. Slavery, War, and Britain’s Atlantic Empire: Black Soldiers, Sailors, and Rebels in the Seven Years’ War. Austin: The University of Texas at Austin, 2009.

Bolster, W. Jeffrey, Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Bowen, Clarence Winthrop. Boundary Disputes of Connecticut. Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, 1882.

Bristol, Douglas. Knights of the Razor: Black Barbers in Slavery and Freedom. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 2009.

Burpee, Charles W. Burpee’s The Story of Connecticut. New York: American Historical Company Inc., 1939.

Capels, Valerie and Wayne Senville. “Planning for Cemeteries.” Planning Commissioners Journal no. 64 (Fall, 2006).

Caron, Denis R. A Century in Captivity: The Life and Trials of Prince Mortimer, a Connecticut Slave. Lebanon: University of New England Press, 2006.

Caulkins, Frances Manwaring. History of New London, Connecticut. Carlisle: Applewood’s Historiography Series, 1895.

Clark, George L. A History of Connecticut: Its People and Institutions. New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1914.

“Connecticut Black Governor.” Museum of Connecticut History. (February 2005).

“Emerging from the Shadows, 1775-1819: The Black Governors.” Accessed on July 1, 2018.

Farr, James Barker. Black Odyssey: The Seafaring Traditions of Afro-Americans. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1989.

Farrow, Anne, Joel Lang, and Jenifer Frank. Complicity: How the North promoted, prolonged, and profited from slavery. New York: Ballantine Books, 2007.

Fitts, Robert K. Inventing New England’s Slave Paradise: Master/Slave Relations in Eighteenth-Century Narragansett, Rhode Island. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Forgotten Patriots: African American and American Indian Patriots in the Revolutionary War. Washington, D.C.: National Society Daughters of the American Revolution, 2008.

Foster, Frances Smith. ‘Til Death Or Distance Do Us Part: Love and Marriage in African America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Fouquet, Douglas M. “Who’s Who in the Old Burying Ground?” Sunday Magazine: The Hartford Courant (July 30, 1950).

Fowler, William Chauncey. The Historical Status of the Negro in Connecticut. Charleston: Year Book, 1900.

“A Fugitive Slave Case in Connecticut.” Hartford Daily Courant (1840-1887), Nov. 9, 1850.

Garman, James C. “Viewing the Color Line Through the Material Culture of Death.” Historical Archaeology 28, no. 3 (1994).

Grant, Marion H. In and About Hartford: Tours and Tales. Hartford: Connecticut Historical Society, 1978.

Greene, Lorenzo J. “The New England Negro as seen in Advertisements for Runaway Slaves.” The Journal of Negro History 29, no. 2 (1944): 125-146.

Goodheart, Lawrence. The Solemn Silence of Death: Capital Punishment in Connecticut. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2011.

Goodwin, Joseph O. East Hartford: Its History and Traditions. Hartford: Press of the Case, Lockwood, and Brainard Co., 1879. Accessed through

Harris, Katherine J. “Freedom and Slavery.” African American Connecticut Explored. Eizabeth J. Norman, ed. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2014.

Hartigan-O’Connor, Ellen and Lisa G. Materson, eds. The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Henney, William Franklin. “The Building of a Model Municipality: the Story of the Laying of the Foundation for a Civic Structure Embodying the Principles of Judicious Self- Government, Good Citizenship and Material Prosperity ‒ First Part of Important Article on the Development of Hartford.” The Connecticut Magazine IX, no. 1 (1905): 563.

Hermes, Katherine. “‘By their desire recorded’: Native American Wills and Estate Papers in Colonial Connecticut.” Connecticut History Review 38, no. 2 (1999): 150-173.

Hermes, Katherine and Alexandra Maravel. “Finding the Onepennys Among the Wongunk,” Special Issue, Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut 71 (2017).

Hill, Margaret. “Colonial Punishments,” Colonial Williamsburg Teacher Institute Project.

Hearn, Daniel Allen. Legal Executions in New England: A Comprehensive Reference, 1623-1960. Jefferson: McFarland and Co. Pub., 2007.

Hosley, William and Shepherd M. Holcombe, Sr. By Their Markers Ye Shall Know Them: A Chronicle of the History and Restorations of Hartford’s Ancient Burying Ground. Hartford: Ancient Burying Ground Association, 1994.

Ingersoll, Elinor Bukeley. Connecticut circa 1625: Its Indian Trails, Villages, and Sachemdoms. Hartford: The Connecticut Society of The Colonial Dames of America, Inc., 1935.

Jamieson, Ross. “Material Culture and Social Death: African American Burial Practices.” Historical Archaeology 29, no. 4 (Dec. 1995).

Knoblock, Glenn A. African American Historic Burial Grounds and Gravesites of New England. Jefferson: McFarland, 2016.

Kopelson, Heather Miyano. Faithful Bodies: Performing Religion and Race in the Puritan Atlantic. New York: New York University Press, 2014.

Lavin, Lucianne, ed., “The Wangunk Tribal Communities of the Lower Connecticut River Valley,” Special Issue, Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut 79 (2017).

Lee, Anne S. and Everett S. Lee. “The Health of Slaves and the Health of Freedmen: A Savannah Study,” Phylon (1960-) 38, no. 2 (1977): 170-80, doi:10.2307/274680.

Love, William DeLoss. The Colonial History of Hartford: Gathered from the Original Records. Hartford: 1914.

Ludwig, Allen. Graven Images: New England Stonecarving and Its Symbols, 1650–1815. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1999.

Main, Jackson Turner. Society and Economy in Colonial Connecticut. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.

Manwaring, Charles William ed. A Digest of the Early Connecticut Probate Records, 3 vols. Hartford District, 1636-1750. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1995.

Marcus, Maeva and James R. Perry. The Documentary History of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1789-1800, vol. 2. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

McCollum, Charles. “Demolition Begins for Cemetery Project.” The Hartford Courant (Oct. 13, 1983).

McManus, Edgar J. Black Bondage in the North. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1973.

Menapace, Chris. “The 1776 Election of Hartford’s Black Governor,” Digital Farmington Blog (Jan. 22, 2018).

Melish, Joanne Pope. Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and “Race” in New England, 1780–1860. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Nalty, Bernard C. Long Passage to Korea: Black Sailors and the Integration of the U.S. Navy. Washington: Naval Historical Center, 2003.

National Archives and Records Service. General Services Administration. List of Free Black Heads of Families in the First Census of the United States 1790, complied by Debra L. Newman. Special List No. 34, 1974, housed in the University of Michigan.

Newell, Margaret Ellen. Brethren by Nature: New England Indians, Colonists, and the Origins of American Slavery. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2015.

Neyer, Constance. “Black Governors in Connecticut? There were Many, But They Are…?” Hartford Courant (Feb. 1, 1998).

O’Brien, Jean M. Firsting and Lasting: Writing Indians Out of Existence in New England. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.

Petry, Liz. “Chapter Five: Slavery and The Courant.” Hartford Courant, September 29, 2002.

Piascik, Andy. “Connecticut’s Black Governors”. Connecticut Accessed on July 20, 2018.

Piersen, William Dillon. Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England. Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1988.

Puckle, Bertram. Funeral Customs: Their Origin and Development. Alexandria: Forgotten Books, 1926.

Reiss, Oscar. Blacks in Colonial America. Jefferson: McFarland & Co., 2006.

Roberts, George S. Historic Towns of the Connecticut River Valley. Schenectady: Robson & Adee, 1906.

Robson, D., E. Welch, N. J. Beeching, G.V. Gill, “Consequences of Captivity: Health Effects of Far East Imprisonment in World War II,” QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 102, no. 2 (February 2009), 87–96,

Sawyer, Gerald F., and Warren R. Perry. “New Salem plantation: continuing investigations into African captivity on an 18th century plantation in Connecticut.” Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Providence, Rhode Island (Jan., 2003): 14-19.

Sheldon, George. “Negro Slavery in Old Deerfield.” The New England Magazine 8-14 (1893).

Sheridan, Richard B. Sugar and Slavery: An Economic History of the British West Indies, 1623-1775. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press, 1974.

Stannard, David E. The Puritan Way of Death: A Study in Religion, Culture, and Social Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Steckel, Richard H. and Richard A. Jensen. “New Evidence on the Causes of Slave and Crew Mortality in the Atlantic Slave Trade.” The Journal of Economic History 46, no. 1 (1986): 57-77,

Stein, Douglas L. “Seamen’s Protection Certificate: American Maritime Documents 1776-1860.” Mystic Seaport Museum. 1992.

Steiner, Bernard Christian, and Herbert B. Adams, ed. “History of Slavery in Connecticut,” in Slavery in the States, Selected Essays. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1893.

Stone, Frank Andrews. African American Connecticut: The Black Scene in a New England State. Deland: Global Research Center, 2008.

Stone, Gaynell. “Material Evidence of Ideological and Ethnic Choice in Long Island Gravestones, 1670-1800.” Material Culture 23, no. 3 (1991).

Struzinski, Steven. “The Tavern in Colonial America.” The Gettysburg Historical Journal: Vol. 1, Article 7. 2002.

Stuart, Isaac William. Hartford in the Olden Time: Its First Thirty Years. W. M. B. Hartley, ed. Hartford: F. A. Brown, 1853.

Sullivan, Laura, Tatjana Meschede, and Tom Shapiro. “The Asset Value of Whiteness: Understanding the Racial Wealth Gap.” Demos, February 6, 2017,

Swan, Timothy. Psalmody and Secular Songs, Volume 26. Madison: American Musicological Society, 1997.

Talcott, Mary K. The Original Proprietors. Hartford: Society of the Descendants of the Founders of Hartford, Inc., 1987.

Towner, Lawrence W. “A Fondness for Freedom: Servant Protest in Puritan Society.” The William and Mary Quarterly: A Magazine of Early American History 19, no. 2 (April, 1962).

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database. Edited by David Eltis et. al. Housed at Emory University in Atlanta, GA.

Traub, Amy, Laura Sullivan, Tatjana Meschede, and Tom Shapiro. “The Asset Value of Whiteness: Understanding the Racial Wealth Gap,” Demos (Feb. 6, 2017).

Trumbull, James Hammond. The Memorial History of Hartford County, Connecticut, 1633-1884. Hartford: E.L. Osgood, 1886.

Wakeman, Carolyn. “Documents: Lyme Family Slaves, Part 1 – Arabella’s Dwelling Place.” Florence Griswold Museum (Feb. 27, 2013). Accessed December 22, 2018.

Warren, Wendy. New England Bound: Slavery and Colonization in Early America. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2016.

Welburn, Ron. Hartford’s Ann Plato and the Native Borders of Identity. Albany: SUNY Press, 2015.

Williamson, Margaret. “Slave Names and Naming in the Anglophone Atlantic.” Oxford Bibliographies (April, 2018).

Woodruff, Janet, Gerald F. Sawyer, and Warren R. Perry. “How Archaeology Exposes the Nature of African Captivity And Freedom in Eighteenth And Nineteenth Century Connecticut.” Connecticut History Review 46, no. 2 (2007): 155-183.

Yang, Guocun. From Slavery to Emancipation: The African Americans of Connecticut, 1650s-1820s. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Connecticut: 1999. AAI9946756.

Uncovering Their History: African, African-American and Native-American Burials in Hartford’s Ancient Burying Ground, 1640-1815 is a project of the Ancient Burying Ground Association, and was funded in part by the Connecticut State Historic Preservation Office of the Department of Economic and Community Development with funds from the Community Investment Act.